Learning Probabilistic Discriminative Models of Grasp Affordances under Limited Supervision
Ayse Erkan, Oliver Kroemer, Renaud Detry, Yasemin Altun, Justus Piater and Jan Peters
In: International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, 18-22 Oct 2010, Taiwan.
Abstract—This paper addresses the problem of learning and efficiently representing discriminative probabilistic models of object-specific grasp affordances particularly in situations where the number of labeled grasps is extremely limited. The proposed method does not require an explicit 3D model but rather learns an implicit manifold on which it defines
a probability distribution over grasp affordances. We obtain hypothetical grasp configurations from visual descriptors that are associated with the contours of an object. While these hypothetical configurations are abundant, labeled configurations are very scarce as these are acquired via time-costly experiments carried out by the robot. Kernel logistic regression (KLR) via joint kernel maps is trained to map these hypothesis space of grasps into continuous class conditional probability values
indicating their achievability. We propose a soft-supervised extension of KLR and a framework to combine the merits of semi-supervised and active learning approaches to tackle the scarcity of labeled grasps. Experimental evaluation shows that combining active and semi-supervised learning is favorable in the existence of to an oracle. Furthermore, semi-supervised
learning outperforms supervised learning, particularly when the labeled data is very limited.