PASCAL - Pattern Analysis, Statistical Modelling and Computational Learning

Real-Time Bag of Words, Approximately
Jasper R.R. Uijlings, Arnold W.M. Smeulders and R.J.H. Scha
In: ACM International Conference on Image and Video Retrieval(2009).


We start from the state-of-the-art Bag of Words pipeline that in the 2008 benchmarks of TRECvid and PASCAL yielded the best performance scores. We have contributed to that pipeline, which now forms the basis to compare var- ious fast alternatives for all of its components: (i) For de scriptor extraction we propose a fast algorithm to densely sample SIFT and SURF, and we compare several variants of these descriptors. (ii) For descriptor projection we com- pare a k-means visual vocabulary with a Random Forest. As a preprojection step we experiment with PCA on the descriptors to decrease projection time. (iii) For classification we use Support Vector Machines and compare the 2 kernel with the RBF kernel. Our results lead to a 10-fold speed increase without any loss of accuracy and to a 30-fold speed increase with 17% loss of accuracy, where the latter system does real-time classification at 26 images per second.

EPrint Type:Conference or Workshop Item (Oral)
Project Keyword:Project Keyword UNSPECIFIED
Subjects:Machine Vision
ID Code:6173
Deposited By:Christof Monz
Deposited On:08 March 2010