PASCAL - Pattern Analysis, Statistical Modelling and Computational Learning

Kernel Methods for Smart Antennas
Angel Navia-Vazquez, M. Martínez-Ramón, R. Jordan and C.G. Christodoulou
In: Intelligent Systems: Techniques and Applications (2008) Shaker publishing , Maastricht, The Netherlands , pp. 467-482. ISBN 978-90-423-0345-4


In many array processing applications in communications it is essential to reach a reasonable performance level, particularly in those environments which change rapidly. For example, in mobile communications, users continuously change in number and allocation. Also, channels may vary due to moving objects. In order to extend the capacity of the channels, beamforming is used to allow users to reuse frequencies. In such situations, adaptive arrays are used for tracking issues. Linear LMS or RLS are used because of their properties of fast convergence and low computational cost. The limits on their performance are related to the maximum available number K of array elements and the number N of data available for training the array parameters. K is lower bounded by the number of interferences that have to be cancelled. Also, K is upper bounded by many practical reasons, but the one that concerns us here is its associated number of parameters. If it is too large, then, a large N will be needed for a reasonable convergence; with N small, the system may overfit ( Haykin, 1996). These bounds can be extended with kernel algorithms. They consist of a nonlinear transformation of the data to a higher (possibly infinite) dimensional Hilbert space H provided with a dot product which may be expressed as a nonlinear function of the input data (kernel) (Aizerman, Braverman et al., 1964). Then, linear algorithms can be applied to H, which is nonlinear from the point of view of the input data. Their main drawback is that overfitting may occur due to the fact that the complexity of the system will increase the number of data needed for training. Nevertheless, control of complexity can be applied by the use of Support Vector Machines (SVMs) (Vapnik, 1995), thus giving nonlinear algorithms which need the same number of data as their linear counterparts -see, e. g., (Martínez-Ramón, Rojo-Álvarez et al., 2007). The main drawback of standard SVMs is that they are not adaptive. Nevertheless, there exist a set of techniques that use an iterative re-weighted least squares for online training of the machine, plus techniques to online adapt the subspace in which this procedure is applied, thus making possible an adaptive version of these kernel machines (Navia-Vazquez, Pérez-Cruz et al., 2001). We present here an adaptive SVM, formulated in its complex valued version for antenna array processing. Examples, presented here, cover signal detection and tracking in multiuser nonstationary environments.

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EPrint Type:Book Section
Project Keyword:Project Keyword UNSPECIFIED
Subjects:Learning/Statistics & Optimisation
Theory & Algorithms
ID Code:5027
Deposited By:Angel Navia-Vazquez
Deposited On:24 March 2009