Covariate shift adaptation by importance weighted cross validation ## AbstractA common assumption in supervised learning is that the input points in the training set follow the same probability distribution as the input points that will be given in the future test phase. However, this assumption is not satisﬁed, for example, when the outside of the training region is extrapolated. The situation where the training input points and test input points follow different distributions while the conditional distribution of output values given input points is unchanged is called the covariate shift. Under the covariate shift, standard model selection techniques such as cross validation do not work as desired since its unbiasedness is no longer maintained. In this paper, we propose a new method called importance weighted cross validation (IWCV), for which we prove its unbiasedness even under the covariate shift. The IWCV procedure is the only one that can be applied for unbiased classiﬁcation under covariate shift, whereas alternatives to IWCV exist for regression. The usefulness of our proposed method is illustrated by simulations, and furthermore demonstrated in the brain-computer interface, where strong non-stationarity effects can be seen between training and test sessions.
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