Von Foerster meets Kohonen - approaches to artificial intelligence, cognitive science and information systems development
In this article, some aspects of Heinz Von Foerster's work that are of particular importance for cognitive science and artificial intelligence are studied. Kohonen's self-organizing map is presented as one method that may be useful in implementing some of Von Foerster's ideas. The main foci are the distinction between trivial and non-trivial machines and the concept of constructive learning. The self-organizing map is also presented as a potential tool for alleviating the participatory crisis discussed by Von Foerster. In the end, the importance of considering change in information systems development is considered.