A review of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) compatible manipulators in surgery
Developments in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), coupled with parallel progress in the field of computer assisted surgery, means that an ideal environment has been created for the development of MRI-compatible robotic systems and manipulators, capable of enhancing many types of surgical procedures. However MRI-does impose severe restrictions on mechatronic devices to be used in or around the scanners. In this article a review of the developments in the field of MRI compatible surgical manipulators over the last decade is presented. The manipulators developed make use of different methods of actuation, but they can be reduced to four main groups: actuation transmitted through hydraulics, pneumatic actuators, ultrasonic motors based on the piezoceramic principle and remote manual actuation. Progress has been made concerning material selection, position sensing, and different actuation techniques, and design strategies have been implemented to overcome the multiple restrictions imposed by the MRI environment. Most systems lack the clinical validation needed to continue on to commercial products.